|Title||Objective and graded calibration of recovery of consciousness in experimental models.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Authors||Calderon DP, Schiff ND|
|Journal||Curr Opin Neurol|
|Date Published||2020 Dec 04|
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Experimental preclinical models of recovery of consciousness (ROC) and anesthesia emergence are crucial for understanding the neuronal circuits restoring arousal during coma emergence. Such models can also potentially help to better understand how events during coma emergence facilitate or hinder recovery from brain injury. Here we provide an overview of current methods used to assess ROC/level of arousal in animal models. This exposes the need for objective approaches to calibrate arousal levels. We outline how correlation of measured behaviors and their reestablishment at multiple stages with cellular, local and broader neuronal networks, gives a fuller understanding of ROC.
RECENT FINDINGS: Animals emerging from diverse coma-like states share a dynamic process of cortical and behavioral recovery that reveals distinct states consistently sequenced from low-to-high arousal level and trackable in nonhuman primates and rodents. Neuronal activity modulation of layer V-pyramidal neurons and neuronal aggregates within the brainstem and thalamic nuclei play critical roles at specific stages to promote restoration of a conscious state.
SUMMARY: A comprehensive, graded calibration of cortical, physiological, and behavioral changes in animal models is undoubtedly needed to establish an integrative framework. This approach reveals the contribution of local and systemic neuronal circuits to the underlying mechanisms for recovering consciousness.
|Alternate Journal||Curr Opin Neurol|