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Distinct Commensal Bacterial Signature in the Gut Is Associated With Acute and Long-Term Protection From Ischemic Stroke.

TitleDistinct Commensal Bacterial Signature in the Gut Is Associated With Acute and Long-Term Protection From Ischemic Stroke.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsBenakis C, Poon C, Lane D, Brea D, Sita G, Moore J, Murphy M, Racchumi G, Iadecola C, Anrather J
JournalStroke
Volume51
Issue6
Pagination1844-1854
Date Published2020 Jun
ISSN1524-4628
Abstract

Background and Purpose- Commensal gut bacteria have a profound impact on stroke pathophysiology. Here, we investigated whether modification of the microbiota influences acute and long-term outcome in mice subjected to stroke. Methods- C57BL/6 male mice received a cocktail of antibiotics or single antibiotic. After 4 weeks, fecal bacterial density of the 16S rRNA gene was quantitated by qPCR, and phylogenetic classification was obtained by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Infarct volume and hemispheric volume loss were measured 3 days and 5 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion, respectively. Neurological deficits were tested by the Tape Test and the open field test. Results- Mice treated with a cocktail of antibiotics displayed a significant reduction of the infarct volume in the acute phase of stroke. The neuroprotective effect was abolished in mice recolonized with a wild-type microbiota. Single antibiotic treatment with either ampicillin or vancomycin, but not neomycin, was sufficient to reduce the infarct volume and improved motorsensory function 3 days after stroke. This neuroprotective effect was correlated with a specific microbial population rather than the total bacterial density. In particular, random forest analysis trained for the severity of the brain damage revealed that Bacteroidetes S24.7 and the enzymatic pathway for aromatic metabolism discriminate between large versus small infarct size. Additionally, the microbiota signature in the ampicillin-treated mice was associated with a reduced gut inflammation, long-term favorable outcome shown by an amelioration of the stereotypic behavior, and a reduction of brain tissue loss in comparison to control and was predictive of a regulation of short-chain fatty acids and tryptophan pathways. Conclusions- The findings highlight the importance of the intestinal microbiota in short- and long-term outcomes of ischemic stroke and raises the possibility that targeted modification of the microbiome associated with specific microbial enzymatic pathways may provide a preventive strategy in patients at high risk for stroke. Visual Overview- An online visual overview is available for this article.

DOI10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.029262
Alternate JournalStroke
PubMed ID32404038
Grant ListR01 NS094507 / NS / NINDS NIH HHS / United States