|Title||CNS endothelial derived extracellular vesicles are biomarkers of active disease in multiple sclerosis.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2022|
|Authors||Mazzucco M, Mannheim W, Shetty SV, Linden JR|
|Journal||Fluids Barriers CNS|
|Date Published||2022 Feb 08|
|Keywords||Adult, Biomarkers, Central Nervous System, Endothelial Cells, Endothelium, Vascular, Extracellular Vesicles, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting, Young Adult|
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex, heterogenous disease characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Currently, active disease is determined by physician confirmed relapse or detection of contrast enhancing lesions via MRI indicative of BBB permeability. However, clinical confirmation of active disease can be cumbersome. As such, disease monitoring in MS could benefit from identification of an easily accessible biomarker of active disease. We believe extracellular vesicles (EV) isolated from plasma are excellent candidates to fulfill this need. Because of the critical role BBB permeability plays in MS pathogenesis and identification of active disease, we sought to identify EV originating from central nervous system (CNS) endothelial as biomarkers of active MS. Because endothelial cells secrete more EV when stimulated or injured, we hypothesized that circulating concentrations of CNS endothelial derived EV will be increased in MS patients with active disease.
METHODS: To test this, we developed a novel method to identify EV originating from CNS endothelial cells isolated from patient plasma using flow cytometry. Endothelial derived EV were identified by the absence of lymphocyte or platelet markers CD3 and CD41, respectively, and positive expression of pan-endothelial markers CD31, CD105, or CD144. To determine if endothelial derived EV originated from CNS endothelial cells, EV expressing CD31, CD105, or CD144 were evaluated for expression of the myelin and lymphocyte protein MAL, a protein specifically expressed by CNS endothelial cells compared to endothelial cells of peripheral organs.
RESULTS: Quality control experiments indicate that EV detected using our flow cytometry method are 0.2 to 1 micron in size. Flow cytometry analysis of EV isolated from 20 healthy controls, 16 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients with active disease not receiving disease modifying therapy, 14 RRMS patients with stable disease not receiving disease modifying therapy, 17 relapsing-RRMS patients with stable disease receiving natalizumab, and 14 RRMS patients with stable disease receiving ocrelizumab revealed a significant increase in the plasma concentration of CNS endothelial derived EV in patients with active disease compared to all other groups (p = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we have identified a method to identify CNS endothelial derived EV in circulation from human blood samples. Results from our pilot study indicate that increased levels of CNS endothelial derived EV may be a biomarker of BBB permeability and active disease in MS.
|Alternate Journal||Fluids Barriers CNS|
|PubMed Central ID||PMC8822708|