|Angiotensin II differentially affects hippocampal glial inflammatory markers in young adult male and female mice.
|Year of Publication
|Milner TA, Chen RX, Welington D, Rubin BR, Contoreggi NH, Johnson MA, Mazid S, Marques-Lopes J, Marongiu R, Glass MJ
|Angiotensin II, Animals, Astrocytes, Biomarkers, Calcium, Calcium-Binding Proteins, Cytokines, Female, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Hippocampus, Hypertension, Male, Mice
Hypertension is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders involving inflammation and inflammatory cytokine-producing brain cells (microglia and astrocytes) in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here we investigated the effect of slow-pressor angiotensin II (AngII) on gliosis in the hippocampus and mPFC of young adult (2-mo-old) male and female mice. In males, AngII induced hypertension, and this resulted in an increase in the density of the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the subgranular hilus and a decrease in the density of the microglial marker ionized calcium binding adapter molecule (Iba-1) in the CA1 region. Females infused with AngII did not show hypertension but, significantly, showed alterations in hippocampal glial activation. Compared with vehicle, AngII-infused female mice had an increased density of Iba-1 in the dentate gyrus and CA2/3a region. Like males, females infused with AngII exhibited decreased Iba-1 in the CA1 region. Neither male nor female mice showed differences in GFAP or Iba-1 in the mPFC following AngII infusion. These results demonstrate that the hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to AngII in young adulthood. Differences in gonadal hormones or the sensitivity to AngII hypertension may account for divergences in GFAP and Iba-1 in males and females.
|PubMed Central ID